Types of Electronic Components

18.01.21 12:17 PM By info05

Collection of online electronic components found in the various experimentation kits. These essential components are only a small part of what can be found on the market .

Internal components

Resistors, diodes, transistors, capacitors, relays.

  • Resistance

Resistance decreases the amount of current in a circuit. It is measured in ohms, and the greater the number of ohms, the more the current is reduced. The current loss is transformed into heat, or energy if we add circuits that can use it, such as LEDs.

  • Diode

Make the current flow in only one direction.

  • Transistor

It serves as a switch, amplifier or signal or current modulator. Therefore, essential for the logic of a circuit or to control a motor. Its shape and capacities vary to the extreme.

  • Capacitor

Battery or buffer zone that accumulates current and releases it later. It can have different shapes, here are two examples.

  • Relay

There are all kinds of relays, which differ in size and power. A relay allows current to flow to one electronic component India or another. It's like a switch and it's essential to create complex circuits.

  • Relay and photo coupler

By combining a photocoupler and a relay, we pass the current where we want without depending on where it passes.

  • Rider

This split assembly allows you to connect female sockets by cutting out the number of pins required. The pins are independent which allows to use them to fix a diagram on the prototype board, but then the rest becomes coloring.

Entries and ordering

Push button, potentiometer, switch, joystick, keyboard, touch screen.

  • Push button

Depending on whether the button is pressed or not, the circuit is closed or not. It is connected to a digital port and the program receives the value on or off.

  • Potentiometer

It is also called variable resistor. It is connected to an analog port and the program thus receives the value that it sends and which corresponds to the rotation of the handle.

  • Flexible sensor

Another way to control a device: according to the curvature ... We can associate a resistance to the curvature and thus accelerate an engine for example.

  • Joystick

It connects to two ports for the x and y position, and another port for pressing the joystick.

  • Numeric keypad

16-key numeric keypad

The cable connects to a set of digital ports of the Arduino (or other), so we must implement an event handler for each.

Displays and sound

LED, RGB LED, buzzer, piezo, screens.

  • LED

The LEDs are LEDs supplied in four colors: red, blue, green, yellow. They are connected to the power supply and to the ground by adding a resistance to collect the current and transform it into light. The infra-red (IR) LED is similar but it reacts to an external signal, and does not connect to a port. However, it must be connected to the power supply and the ground.


It is a combination of three red, green and blue LEDs which makes it possible to obtain varied colors by varying the intensity of each.

Three pins are connected to ports to control color intensity and the fourth to ground.

  • Tricolor LED

A different RGB LED, which connects to three different ports.

Three pins are connected to ports to control color intensity and the fourth to ground.

  • Beeper / Piezo

Emits a beep sound, which repeated at high frequency turns into a long sound.

  • LCD screen

Purely textual screen, on a few lines. Graphic versions of small screens are also available on the market. Usually has two 16-character lines in kits.

  • Matrix of LEDs

The points of the matrix can be illuminated individually and images can be obtained, possibly animating them by program.

  • 7-segment display

Primary version of LED display which illuminates predefined segments thus forming numbers or letters.

The multi-digit version has several characters (this is what justifies the point below).

  • Sensors, sensors, detectors

Temperature, light, flame, smoke, humidity, heat, distance, movement, acceleration, orientation, vibration, contact, shock, atmospheric pressure, altitude, flexibility, sounds, ultrasound, gas, reflectivity, finger pressure, colors, gyroscope on 3 axes.

  • Photoresistor (Photoresistor)

Light sensor, we connect it to an analog port and the value we receive depends on the light the sensor receives.

  • Temperature sensor

Connected to an analog port, the TMP36 sensor sends a value in the form of voltage. A low value when the sensor receives a lot of light, high in the dark. The voltage is then converted into a temperature measurement according to a simple mathematical formula.

  • Distance sensor

Sends and receives ultra-sonic waves, and thanks to echo-location like bats evaluate the distance according to the return time.

  • Humidity sensor

Because of the greater conductivity of air when it is humid, it can be easily detected by measuring the current flowing through a flat component. It is then connected to an analog port.

  • Flame and infrared detector

This flame detector is actually an NPN phototransistor, an infrared ray detector.

  • Tilt sensor

Can have a cubic or cylindrical shape. Detects the inclination thanks to a ball which moves inside and which touches one of the poles. The simple version that we find in two-state kits, it's more of a kind of button controlled by the circuit.


Servo motor, hobby motor, stepper.

  • Engine

Electric motor whose speed depends on the current it receives, which is modulated using a transistor.

  • Servo motor

Unlike the electric motor, it rotates with a limited value interval, for example between 0 and 180 degrees. This is suitable for operating a mechanism, such as the arm of a robot.

  • Step by step pilot

In English "stepper driver", controls the electric motor to make it work in step-by-step mode.

  • Communication

Bluetooth, wifi, transceiver, infra-red.

  • Infrared receiver

The Sain Smart kit includes the VS1838B infrared receiver.

  • RFID

It is a radio frequency transmitter coupled to a receiver, the set beeps to the object that we want to find.

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